John Cafaro MD

Board Review: Orthopedics

A 12 year old female is tackled in a soccer game. She arrives with her knee in flexion and her patella laterally displaced. She is neurovascularly intact. Skin is intact. She cannot extend the knee. What is the diagnosis?

A. Patella Dislocation

B. Knee Dislocation

C. Quad Tendon Rupture

D. Patella Tendon Rupture

 

 

 

 

 

Answer is A - Patella Dislocation

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Board Review: Drowning

A 2 year old boy is brought to the Emergency Department after a drowning event. Bystanders noted the child was underwater for 1 minute but was quickly pulled from the bottom of the pool, he coughed and vomited. On arrival, he is aware and alert and behaving appropriately per parents. His GCS is 15. On examination, he has a heart rate of 110, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute SaO2 of 98% on room air. His lungs are clear. What is the next step in management? 

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Board Review: Toxicology

A 30 year-old female presents altered and minimally responsive. She was found next to an empty bottle of Valproic Acid. Her blood pressure is 130/80, heart rate is 90, afebrile and without tachypnea or hypoxia. You stabilize her. Depakote level is 550. What is the treatment of the choice? 

A. L-carnitine 

B. Naloxone

C. Carbapenem

D. Fomepizole

E. N-acetylcysteine 

F. Hemodialysis 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer: A, L-carnitine

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MedMalMonthly: Legal Primer

Civil Law:

  • A dispute between two parties.
  • Burden of proof is based on a "preponderance of evidence".
  • Punishment is monetary without threat for incarceration. 

Criminal Law:

  • Government or state brings action against an individual/ entity accused of wrongdoing.
  • Burdern of proof is "beyond a reasonable doubt".
  • Punishment is incarceration or fines. 

Negligence - There are 4 elements. 

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