#EMconf: The (Dis)Utility of the Urine Drug Screen
**It is important to take results of a UDS in context, as history and physical exam are often more revealing for toxidromes. These tables are not all-inclusive!**
-Moeller KE, Kissack JC, Atayee RS, Lee KC. Clinical Interpretation of Urine Drug Tests: What Clinicians Need to Know About Urine Drug Screens. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017 May;92(5):774–96.
-Nelson ZJ, Stellpflug SJ, Engebretsen KM. What Can a Urine Drug Screening Immunoassay Really Tell Us? J Pharm Pract. 2016 Oct;29(5):516–26.
-Johnson-Davis KL, Sadler AJ, Genzen JR. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 2016 Mar;40(2):97–107.
-Saitman A, Park H-D, Fitzgerald RL. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 2014 Sep;38(7):387–96.
-Hoffman, Robert, Howland, Mary Ann, Lewin, Neal,Nelson, Lewis, Goldfrank, Lewis, Flomenbaum, Neal E. Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies, 10th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. Print
-Lin C-N, Strathmann FG. Elevated urine zinc concentration reduces the detection of methamphetamine, cocaine, THC and opiates in urine by EMIT. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 2013 Nov;37(9):665–9.
-Cotten SW, Duncan DL, Burch EA, Seashore CJ, Hammett-Stabler CA. Unexpected interference of baby wash products with a cannabinoid (THC) immunoassay. Clin Biochem. 2012 Jun;45(9):605–9.