When patients present to the Emergency Department with acute upper GI bleeding, the natural inclination is to quickly pull the transfusion trigger. However, a 2013 study gives us pause:
Joseph Cesarine, MD
Your patient in the Emergency Department has a Zone II or Zone III finger amputation which requires primary closure of the wound prior to discharge with appropriate outpatient follow up. However, a protruding piece of bone often prevents closure of the skin flap and requires trimming by using a rongeur. While this process is typically carried out by an orthopedic or hand surgical consultant, this post aims to introduce the use of a ronguer during management of finger amputation in the Emergency Department.
Answer: False. Infants present with non-bilious vomiting
Diagnosis: Pyloric Stenosis
Pathology: Pyloric stenosis is hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pylorus with a multifactorial inheritance in families. The incidence is 5/1000 births in males and 2/1000 births in females. It is therefore more common in males; it is also more common in first-born infants, and in Caucasian infants.
Case: A six week-old previously healthy, term infant via vaginal birth is brought to pediatric ED for repeated episodes of vomiting over a one week period. Vomiting occurs 20-30 min following every episode of feeding and is described as projectile. Parents note decreased urine output over the past two days. Patient is noted to be hungry following vomiting episodes
Dynamic hyperinflation (autoPEEP, air trapping, etc.) is a process leading to an increase in end-expiratory lung volumes and increased airway pressures. This process may occur secondary to obstructive lung pathology and/or an increase in minute-ventilation without sufficient time for expiration. The pathologic effects of dynamic hyperinflation include an increased work-of-breathing, barotrauma, pneumothorax, and an increase in intrathoracic pressure leading to a decrease in cardiac output and possible hemodynamic collapse. Rapid identification of this process is crucial for reversing it.
You have made the diagnosis of disseminated gonococcal infection in your patient presenting with history and physical exam findings suggestive of purulent arthritis, now what? Treatment for gonococcal arthritis goes beyond the one-time "shot and a pill" given for uncomplicataed gonococcal infections. A quick review of disseminated gonococcal infection:
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The most commonly used induction agent for rapid sequence intubation in the acutely injured patient is etomidate, largely due to its rapid onset of action and hemodynamically "neutral" effects. The dose-dependent effect of etomidate in suppressing adrenal synthesis of cortisol leading to adrenal insufficiency has left the door open for ketamine to be also considered as the rapid induction agent of choice in these critically injured patients.
This post aims to shine a light on a possibly emerging use of bedside ultrasound. While this is far from being recommended as a viable method of intubation during RSI in an Emergency Department, knowledge that ongoing research evaluating the use of ultrasound-guided tracheal intubation (UGTI) exists can only serve to enhance one's understanding of the progression of ultrasound in medicine.