Deflated? Esophageal pressure monitoring in ARDS

Lung protective ventilation limiting tidal volume and plateau pressure improves survival in ARDS. The application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) further stabilizes the lung by preventing alveolar collapse during expiration, thereby reducing cyclic atelectasis. However, the optimal approach to PEEP titration to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has not been delineated. The EPVent-1 trial demonstrated that esophageal pressure-guided PEEP titration was feasible and safe with a trend toward increased survival and improved oxygenation in mild to moderate ARDS. However, interest in esophageal manometry in ARDS was deflated by the more recent EPVent-2 trial demonstrating no improvement in a composite outcome incorporating mortality and ventilator-free days in patients with moderate to severe ARDS. A new randomized control trial published last week by Wang et al. examined the role of esophageal manometry-guided PEEP titration in a novel subset of severe ARDS patients treated with VV ECMO. 

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Preventing ventilator-induce lung injury (VILI): Optimizing PEEP titration in ARDS

Lung-protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and restricted plateau pressure improves survival in ARDS. However, the optimal approach to PEEP titration to minimize VILI is still debated. Should oxygenation, lung compliance, driving pressure or transpulmonary pressure guide adjustment of PEEP in ARDS?

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