Monday Back to Basics

Bradycardia, Part 1 with Dr. Allison Cash

A ACS Myocardial infarction, also consider cardiomyopathies, myocarditis 
T Thyroid Hypothyroidism 
Rhythms  Second degree AV block (type I & II), complete AV block 
O Overdose Digoxin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, amiodarone, clonidine, organophosphates, naturally occurring cardiac glycosides (e.g. foxglove), opioids 
P Pressure Increased intracranial pressure (Cushing’s response) 
Infection Lyme disease, diphtheria, typhoid fever, aortic root abscess 
N Nippy  Hypothermia  
E Electrolytes Glucose, potassium, calcium, and magnesium 

Other Considerations:

  • Hypoxia
  • Infiltrative Disorders (Amyloidosis, Sarcoidosis, Hemochromatosis)
  • Autoimmune disorders (SLE)


  1. Judith E. Tintinall, et al. (2020). Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine : A Comprehensive Study Guide (Ninth Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill. 
  1. Briggs, Blake & Husain, Iltifat. (2024, Jan 16) Bradycardia: “But my Apple Watch…?” (208). Emergency Medicine Board Bombs. 

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