Branch of frontal nerve which continues superiorly
Branch of frontal nerve which continues medially
-Supraorbital foramen is 2 cm laterally from nasal aspect of orbital rim-Block both the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve by directing the needle first cephalad and then medially toward nasal spine
Branch of maxillary nerve which continues medially and caudally
-Infraorbital foramen is below the orbital rim at intersection of pupil and nasal alae -Intraoral approach: inject into the buccal mucosa at canine and direct upward and outward -Extraoral approach: laterally approach foramen until bone is hit, inject local anesthetic
Branch of mandibular (alveolar) nerve which continues medially
-Mental foramen in line with premolar tooth -Intraoral approach: retract lower lip and insert needle into mucosa of first premolar tooth, inject down and outward –Extraoral approach: approach foramen laterally
Gibbs MA, Wu T. Local and Regional Anesthesia. In: Tintinalli JE, Ma O, Yealy DM, Meckler GD, Stapczynski J, Cline DM, Thomas SH. eds. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 9e. McGraw Hill; 2020.